Benefits Management draws on a number of other management methods, tools and techniques. Some are referenced below. The list is by no means definitive but serves as a suggestion of areas to consider:

  • Business Policy and Strategy models – PESTLE, SWOT, Porter’s competition model
  • Modernisation Agency Model for Improvement – PDSA cycle
  • Change Management – various models, e.g. Kanter et al 1992
  • Group Dynamics – Adair, Belbin, Cyert & March
  • Facilitation skills – various tools and techniques, workshop owner’s and facilitator’s guides
  • Performance Management – Total Organisational Excellence, Oakland 2001, The Performance Prism, Neely, Adams & Kennerley 2002
  • Office of Government Commerce ( – Managing Successful Programmes, Successful Delivery Toolkit – Benefits Management

There are presently few useful reference works on Benefits Management. Here are some that you might find worth studying:

  • Serra, C "Benefits Realization Management", CRC Press (2017)
  • Jenner, S "Managing Benefits", APMG International, 2nd edn (2014) - The training manual if you want to become a Benefits Management practitioner
  • Jenner, S "Realising Benefits from Government ICT Investment: a fool's errand?", Academic Publishing International (2010)
  • Bradley, G " Benefit Realisation Management: A Practical Guide to Achieving Benefits", Gower (2010)
  • Ward, J. M., Murray, P. and Daniel, E., “Benefits Management Best Practice Guidelines”, ISRC-BM-200401, Information Systems Research Centre, Cranfield School of Management, Cranfield (2004)
  • Thorp, John, "The Information Paradox", McGraw Hill, revised edn (2003)






A set of actions by and for stakeholders that uses the programme’s features to deliver outcomes that in turn deliver benefits. Described as end-states rather than change processes



The value placed by a stakeholder on the performance improvement or a new capability resulting from an outcome.

A dis-benefit is an outcome that the stakeholder sees as detrimental to personal interests.


Benefit Category

A grouping of similar benefits used to aid the prioritisation and selection of benefits, e.g. the National Standards’ seven domains (patient safety, etc).


Benefit Measure

An observable item that can be used to demonstrate that the benefit has been obtained.


Benefit Owner

The person who is responsible for the delivery of an individual benefit, (cf. Senior Responsible Owner for a whole project).


Benefit Profile

The complete description of a benefit or dis-benefit


Goal Contribution Map

A particular type a causal map that links enabler, features, activity, outcomes, benefits goals and drivers

Based on Cranfield definition

Benefits Management

The overall set of decisions, processes and activities that facilitates the optimal use of scarce resources to deliver appropriate benefits to identified stakeholders.


Benefits Measurement Plan

A plan (and schedule) to carry out a set of measurement activities that together will collect data that will demonstrate whether or not the desired performance improvement and benefits measures have been achieved and in the expected timescales.


Benefits Plan

A plan that shows how the intended benefits will be obtained. It consists of a narrative, Goal Contribution Map and Benefits Profiles.


Benefits Realisation Framework

The rules, processes and organisation set up to support the delivery of benefits.


Benefits Realisation Plan

A comprehensive plan to realise benefits, consisting of:

  • Goals and Benefits
  • Implementation Plan
  • Benefits Measurement and Review Plan
  • Stakeholder Management Plan

Benefits Register

A catalogue of the benefits profiles of all possible benefits from the programme.



A service, function or operation that enables the organisation to exploit opportunities


Causal Map

A cause-effect map relating actions-to-change to outcomes. The actions-to-change will be the necessary and sufficient set of activities required to shift the organisation from its status quo to the new state, which is perceived will deliver the desired benefits..



A view held by relevant stakeholders as to what is important in the organisation, in a given timescale, such that they feel that changes must occur.



A purpose for the programme/project, determined by the drivers of the key stakeholder groups.



The result of change, normally affecting real-world behaviour and/or circumstances. Outcomes are achieved as a result of the actions-to-change.

Based on MSP definition

Outcome Measure

An observable item that can be used to demonstrate that the outcome has been achieved.


Performance Improvement

The measurable improvement (in the dimensions of shorter elapsed, more efficient use of resources, increased quality of output, reduced risk of process failure, increase consistency of delivery) to an organisation’s activity or process resulting from an outcome

Based on MSP definition

Performance Improvement Measure

An observable item that can be used to demonstrate that the performance improvement has been achieved.



An individual or group who will face a significant impact from a business change.


Stakeholder Table

A diagram that shows stakeholder groups, their interest and values and inter-relationships.



The left hand item in a Goal Contribution Map, it is a succinct description of the programme / project that sets the boundaries of the benefits management exercise.



A discrete component of the enabler, e.g. separate applications in a portfolio of software


Success is hard


In the world of programmes and projects, success is hard to achieve and often hard to prove. Programmes struggle because we dive into the complexity without stepping back into the basic principles that show the key things they are meant to achieve. Modelling helps.

Here's one I did earlier.

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